Video Integration in a GNSS/INS Hybridization Architecture for Approach and Landing

Abstract : The quick development of air traffic has led to the improvement of approach and landing operations by using flexible flight paths and decreasing the minima required to perform these operations. Most of the operations are currently supported by the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) potentially augmented with Ground Based Augmentation System (GBAS), Satellite Based Augmentation Systems (SBAS) and Aircraft Based Augmentation System (ABAS). SBAS and GBAS allow supporting navigation operations down to Approaches with Vertical guidance (APV) and to Precision Approaches (PA) respectively. However, these augmentations do require an expensive network of reference receivers and real-time broadcasts to the airborne user [GEAS, 2008]. In order to overcome these limitations, the ABAS system integrates on-board information that can for example be provided by Inertial Navigation System (INS) so as to enhance the performance of the navigation system. In this scheme, the INS is coupled on board with GPS through a GPS/INS hybridization solution that is already performed on current commercial aircraft. This solution allows reaching better performance in terms of accuracy, integrity, availability and continuity than the two separated solutions. The basic principle of this hybridization technique is that the GPS solution can be used to estimate the inertial drift. Thus, the hybridization compensates GPS and INS drawbacks (unavailability for GPS and drifting errors for INS), allowing navigation in oceanic en-route operations down to non-precision approaches for long range aircraft. The hybridized solution also allows coasting when GPS is unavailable for a limited period of time and can improve integrity monitoring of GPS data. Moreover, on some commercial aircraft, the Air Data Inertial Reference Unit (ADIRU) provides air parameters such as Barometric Altitude and Vertical Speed, in addition to inertial parameters. In this case, the hybridization architecture can integrate the barometric altitude and estimate the vertical position and the vertical velocity. However the most stringent requirements for precision approaches or automatic landings cannot be reached with the current GPS/INS hybridization schemes. The main idea in the framework of my PhD study is then to extend the hybridization filter by including other sensors or other information sources available on commercial aircraft and to assess the performance reached by this global hybridization architecture. The objective of the work is to propose a system that will be able to fuse the multiple sources of information or measurement in a global architecture. Thus, it aims at providing most of the navigation parameters (3D position, 3D velocity, attitude and heading) in all conditions and operations with the required level of performance in terms of accuracy, integrity, availability and continuity. The integration of multiple sources of on-board measurements allows improving the performances of the navigation solution by gathering all the advantages of each source. The operations targeted by this hybridization are the ones requiring very stringent performances, as precision approaches, with a particular focus on CAT III precision approach and roll out on the runway. The study of the possible sensors/systems and associated information/measurements available on board a commercial aircraft has been investigated in previous works, and a set of sensors and data to consider has been identified: a GPS (potentially augmented with GBAS), an INS (different classes of inertial sensors will be considered), tachometers (during take-off and landing operations) and a video system. The aim of my work is to arrive to the definition of a global hybridization filter architecture based on the integration of multiple information/measurement sources or sensors (INS, GNSS receiver, tachometers and a video system), depending on the operational environment: the aircraft operation considered, the sensors available during the considered operation, the performance requirement for supporting the considered operation.
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Communication dans un congrès
IEEE/ION PLANS 2014, Position Location and Navigation Symposium, May 2014, Monterey, United States. pp xxxx, 2014
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Jérémy Vezinet, Anne-Christine Escher, Alain Guillet, Christophe Macabiau. Video Integration in a GNSS/INS Hybridization Architecture for Approach and Landing. IEEE/ION PLANS 2014, Position Location and Navigation Symposium, May 2014, Monterey, United States. pp xxxx, 2014. 〈hal-00989889〉

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