Architecture de communication sécurisée d’une flotte de drones

Abstract : Advances in miniaturization of embedded systems have helped to produce small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) with highly effective capacity. In order to improve their capability in civilian complex missions (for instance, to bypass an obstruction), it is now possible to deploy UAV swarms, in which cooperative UAVs share different tasks. This type of operations needs a high level of coordination between UAVs and Ground Control Station (GCS) through a frequent exchange of information. The communication capabilities are therefore an important objective to achieve for effective UAV swarm operations. Several communication architectures can be used to allow communication between UAVs and GCS. Ad hoc network is one of them and is an effective and promising solution for multi-UAV systems. Such a network is called UAANET (UAV Ad hoc Network) and is an autonomous system made of a UAV swarm and one or several GCS (Ground Control Station). This network can also be considered as a sub category of the well-known MANET (Mobile Ad hoc network). However, it has some specific features (such as node velocity, specific mobility model) that can impact performance of routing protocols. Furthermore, the nature of the wireless medium, along with the lack of fixed infrastructure, which is necessary to verify node and message authentication, create security breaches. Specifically, given the critical characteristic of the real-time data traffic, message authentication proves to be an important step to guarantee the security of the final UAS (composed of UAV swarm). Security of routing protocols has been widely investigated in wired networks and MANETs, but as far as we are aware, there is no previous research dealing with the security features of UAANET routing protocols. Those existing solutions can be adapted to meet UAANET requirements. With that in mind, in this thesis, we propose a secure and reliable communication architecture for a UAV swarm. In this work, the creation of UAANET has first been concieved. In order to do this, we studied the impact of existing MANET routing protocols into UAANET to assess their performance and to select the best performer as the core of our proposed secure routing protocol. Accordingly, we evaluated those existing routing protocols based on a realistic mobility model and realistic UAANET environment. Based on this first study, we created a secure routing protocol for UAANET called SUAP (Secure UAV Ad hoc routing Protocol). On the one hand, SUAP ensures routing services by finding routing paths between nodes to exchange real time traffic (remote monitoring video traffic). On the other hand, SUAP ensures message authentication and provides detection to avoid wormhole attack. The SUAP routing protocol is a reactive routing protocol using public key cryptography and hash chains. In order to detect wormhole attack, a geographical leash-based algorithm is used to estimate the correlation between the packet traveled distance and the hop count value. We also contribute to the certification of the secure communication system software through a Model-Driven Development (MDD) approach. This certification is needed to validate the operation of the UAV swarm, especially in cases where it is used to exchange control and command traffic. We used Simulink and Stateflow tools and formal verification tools of Matlab Software to design SUAP routing protocol. The evaluation of the effectiveness of SUAP has been executed both through emulation and real experiment studies. Our results show that SUAP ensures authentication and integrity security services and protects against a wormhole attack. It also provides an acceptable quality of service for real-time data exchanges.
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  • HAL Id : tel-01570242, version 1

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Jean-Aimé Maxa. Architecture de communication sécurisée d’une flotte de drones. Réseaux et télécommunications [cs.NI]. Université Toulouse 3 Paul Sabatier (UT3 Paul Sabatier), 2017. Français. ⟨tel-01570242v1⟩

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