Performance Evaluation of Multipath Mitigation Techniques for Critical Urban Applications Based on a Land Mobile Satellite Channel Model

Abstract : Due to the modernization of current GNSS, the development of new GNSS like Galileo and Beidou, and the improvement of satellite augmentations systems, GNSS is a promising alternative for several terrestrial positioning systems that require costly ground infrastructures. In the rail domain, the European Train Control System (ETCS), as detailed in ETCS Implementation Handbook, is currently based on a combination of radiobeacons (Eurobalises) and odometry systems for real-time train position and velocity monitoring. The use of GNSS in this system is currently being investigated by the Union industry of signaling (UNISIG) in order to lower the number of Eurobalises and to reduce the costs of maintenance and calibration. In the road domain, GNSS is one of the recommended technologies in the EU directive for Electronic Toll Collection (ETC) and systems based on GNSS already exists for heavy good transportations vehicles in Germany, Slovakia and France. These applications that are either safety critical or liability critical require adapted integrity monitoring techniques. The design of the integrity monitoring algorithms requires the definition of the nominal measurement error models that is highly related to the operational environment. Challenging environments like urban scenarios with urban canyons induce masking and multipath that are challenging the receiver's tracking loops by significantly distorting the shape of the correlation function. The aim of this paper is to analyze and characterize the pseudorange measurement errors in constrained environments, paying special attention to the receiver tracking loops and the effect of multipath mitigation techniques. The targeted applications are safety and liability critical transport services like GNSS-based train control systems. Therefore the proposed error characterization and model must be valid and usable for the design and analysis of integrity monitoring systems in these application domains. This study firstly aims at characterizing the nominal code pseudorange multipath error standard deviation in urban and rural environment for dual constellation GPS/Galileo single-frequency L1/E1 receiver. To do so, the characterization is based on the use of the wide band Land Mobile Satellite (LMS) channel model developed by the German Aerospace Center (DLR). For this purpose, it is necessary to couple the LMS channel model and a realistic GNSS receiver simulator.
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Philippe Brocard, Daniel Salós, Olivier Julien, Mikaël Mabilleau. Performance Evaluation of Multipath Mitigation Techniques for Critical Urban Applications Based on a Land Mobile Satellite Channel Model. IEEE/ION PLANS 2014, Position Location and Navigation Symposium, May 2014, Monterey, United States. pp 612 - 625, ISBN: 9781479933198. ⟨hal-00989822⟩

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